evolution of computer systemblog.gogo.publicvm.com News ☆ Learn about the ✅HISTORY OF COMPUTER hand, had monitors, keyboards, and, most importantly, an operating system. Computer - History of computing: A computer might be described with deceptive to even—in the form of guidance systems for robots—walking across a room.

This prompted him to invent the "monolithic" integrated circuit IC , a collection of transistors and other components that could be manufactured all at once, in a block, on the surface of a semiconductor. Kilby's invention was another step forward, but it also had a drawback: the components in his integrated circuit still had to be connected by hand.

While Kilby was making his breakthrough in Dallas, unknown to him, Robert Noyce was perfecting almost exactly the same idea at Fairchild in California. Noyce went one better, however: he found a way to include the connections between components in an integrated circuit, thus automating the entire process.

Photo: An integrated circuit seen from the inside. Integrated circuits, as much as transistors, helped to shrink computers during the s. As the s wore on, integrated circuits became increasingly sophisticated and compact. Soon, engineers were speaking of large-scale integration LSI , in which hundreds of components could be crammed onto a single chip, and then very large-scale integrated VLSI , when the same chip could contain thousands of components.

The logical conclusion of all this miniaturization was that, someday, someone would be able to squeeze an entire computer onto a chip. With integration very much in their minds, they called it Integrated Electronics or Intel for short. Originally they had planned to make memory chips, but when the company landed an order to make chips for a range of pocket calculators, history headed in a different direction.

A couple of their engineers, Federico Faggin — and Marcian Edward Ted Hoff — , realized that instead of making a range of specialist chips for a range of calculators, they could make a universal chip that could be programmed to work in them all. Thus was born the general-purpose, single chip computer or microprocessor—and that brought about the next phase of the computer revolution.

By , Intel had launched a popular microprocessor known as the and computer hobbyists were soon building home computers around it. With its front panel covered in red LED lights and toggle switches, it was a far cry from modern PCs and laptops.

Even so, it sold by the thousand and earned Roberts a fortune. The Altair inspired a Californian electronics wizard name Steve Wozniak — to develop a computer of his own. In the mids, he was working at the Hewlett-Packard computer company in California, and spending his free time tinkering away as a member of the Homebrew Computer Club in the Bay Area.

After seeing the Altair, Woz used a microprocessor made by an Intel rival, Mos Technology to build a better home computer of his own: the Apple I. When he showed off his machine to his colleagues at the club, they all wanted one too. One of his friends, Steve Jobs — , persuaded Woz that they should go into business making the machine.

Woz agreed so, famously, they set up Apple Computer Corporation in a garage belonging to Jobs' parents. While the Altair looked like something out of a science lab, and the Apple I was little more than a bare circuit board, the Apple ][ took its inspiration from such things as Sony televisions and stereos: it had a neat and friendly looking cream plastic case.

Launched in April , it was the world's first easy-to-use home "microcomputer. Two things turned the Apple ][ into a really credible machine for small firms: a disk drive unit, launched in , which made it easy to store data; and a spreadsheet program called VisiCalc, which gave Apple users the ability to analyze that data.

In just two and a half years, Apple sold around 50, of the machine, quickly accelerating out of Jobs' garage to become one of the world's biggest companies. Photos: Microcomputers—the first PCs. The Apple ][ and The Sinclair ZX81 , a build-it-yourself microcomputer that became hugely popular in the UK when it was launched in Both of these machines live in glass cases at Think Tank, the science museum in Birmingham, England.

Apple's success selling to businesses came as a great shock to IBM and the other big companies that dominated the computer industry. It didn't take a VisiCalc spreadsheet to figure out that, if the trend continued, upstarts like Apple would undermine IBM's immensely lucrative business market selling "Big Blue" computers. In , IBM finally realized it had to do something and launched a highly streamlined project to save its business.

One year later, it released the IBM Personal Computer PC , based on an Intel microprocessor, which rapidly reversed the company's fortunes and stole the market back from Apple. The PC was successful essentially for one reason. All the dozens of microcomputers that had been launched in the s—including the Apple ][—were incompatible. All used different hardware and worked in different ways.

As a result, programs written for one machine would generally not run on another one without a great deal of conversion. Companies who wrote software professionally typically wrote it just for one machine and, consequently, there was no software industry to speak of. In , Gary Kildall — , a teacher and computer scientist, and one of the founders of the Homebrew Computer Club, had figured out a solution to this problem.

That would make all the different microcomputers compatible at a stroke. By the early s, Kildall had become a multimillionaire through the success of his invention: the first personal computer operating system. Legend has it that Kildall was out flying his personal plane when IBM called, so missed out on one of the world's greatest deals.

Some believe Microsoft and IBM cheated Kildall out of his place in computer history; Kildall himself accused them of copying his ideas. Others think Gates was simply the shrewder businessman. Yet IBM's victory was short-lived.

When other computer manufacturers, notably Compaq and Dell, starting making IBM-compatible or "cloned" hardware, they too came to Gates for the software. IBM charged a premium for machines that carried its badge, but consumers soon realized that PCs were commodities: they contained almost identical components—an Intel microprocessor, for example—no matter whose name they had on the case.

As IBM lost market share, the ultimate victors were Microsoft and Intel, who were soon supplying the software and hardware for almost every PC on the planet. Apple, IBM, and Kildall made a great deal of money—but all failed to capitalize decisively on their early success. Photo: Personal computers threatened companies making large "mainframes" like this one. Fortunately for Apple, it had another great idea.

One of the Apple II's strongest suits was its sheer "user-friendliness. Xerox had started developing computers in the early s, believing they would make paper and the highly lucrative photocopiers Xerox made obsolete. Unlike most microcomputers launched in the s, which were programmed by typing in text commands, the Alto had a desktop-like screen with little picture icons that could be moved around with a mouse: it was the very first graphical user interface GUI, pronounced "gooey" —an idea conceived by Alan Kay — and now used in virtually every modern computer.

The Alto borrowed some of its ideas, including the mouse , from s computer pioneer Douglas Engelbart — But it paved the way for a better, cheaper machine called the Macintosh that Jobs unveiled a year later, in January With its memorable launch ad for the Macintosh inspired by George Orwell's novel , and directed by Ridley Scott director of the dystopic movie Blade Runner , Apple took a swipe at IBM's monopoly, criticizing what it portrayed as the firm's domineering—even totalitarian—approach: Big Blue was really Big Brother.

Apple's ad promised a very different vision: "On January 24, Apple Computer will introduce Macintosh. And you'll see why won't be like ''. Ironically, Jobs' easy-to-use machine also helped Microsoft to dislodge IBM as the world's leading force in computing. Four years later, the case collapsed with Microsoft effectively securing the right to use the Macintosh "look and feel" in all present and future versions of Windows.

Microsoft's Windows 95 system, launched three years later, had an easy-to-use, Macintosh-like desktop and MS-DOS running behind the scenes. Standardized PCs running standardized software brought a big benefit for businesses: computers could be linked together into networks to share information. At Xerox PARC in , electrical engineer Bob Metcalfe — developed a new way of linking computers "through the ether" empty space that he called Ethernet.

A few years later, Metcalfe left Xerox to form his own company, 3Com, to help companies realize "Metcalfe's Law": computers become useful the more closely connected they are to other people's computers. As more and more companies explored the power of local area networks LANs , so, as the s progressed, it became clear that there were great benefits to be gained by connecting computers over even greater distances—into so-called wide area networks WANs.

Photo: Computers aren't what they used to be: they're much less noticeable because they're much more seamlessly integrated into everyday life. Some are "embedded" into household gadgets like coffee makers or televisions. Others travel round in our pockets in our smartphones—essentially pocket computers that we can program simply by downloading "apps" applications.

Today, the best known WAN is the Internet —a global network of individual computers and LANs that links up hundreds of millions of people. The history of the Internet is another story, but it began in the s when four American universities launched a project to connect their computer systems together to make the first WAN. The convergence of all these networks produced what we now call the Internet later in the s.

Shortly afterward, the power of networking gave British computer programmer Tim Berners-Lee — his big idea: to combine the power of computer networks with the information-sharing idea Vannevar Bush had proposed in Thus, was born the World Wide Web —an easy way of sharing information over a computer network, which made possible the modern age of cloud computing where anyone can access vast computing power over the Internet without having to worry about where or how their data is processed.

It's Tim Berners-Lee's invention that brings you this potted history of computing today! There are lots of websites covering computer history. Here are a just a few favorites worth exploring! There are some superb computer history videos on YouTube and elsewhere; here are three good ones to start you off:. All rights reserved. Full copyright notice and terms of use.

Please rate or give feedback on this page and I will make a donation to WaterAid. Woodford, Chris. A brief history of computers. Sponsored links. Find out more On this site How computers work : A basic guide. Cloud computing : How the Internet can provide access to vast, distributed computing power.

Buying a new computer : Laptop or desktop? New or secondhand? Windows, Max, or Linux? We list the most important considerations for computer buyers. Quantum computing : Will atomic-scale computers overcome the limitations of today's machines? Supercomputers : How do the world's most powerful computers work? Computing articles : A list of all the computer-related articles on this site.

Other websites There are lots of websites covering computer history. Wikipedia History of Computing Hardware : covers similar ground to this page. Computer history images : A small but interesting selection of photos. Intel Museum : The story of Intel's contributions to computing from the s onward.

Videos There are some superb computer history videos on YouTube and elsewhere; here are three good ones to start you off: The Difference Engine : A great introduction to Babbage's Difference Engine from Doron Swade, one of the world's leading Babbage experts.

A tour of the Computer History Museum : Dag Spicer gives us a tour of the world's most famous computer museum, in California. San Fransisco, California: HarperCollins, Cringely, Robert. New York: HarperBusiness, The story of personal computing in the s. Hodges, Andrew. Alan Turing: The Enigma. New York: Random House, Sets out Turing's fundamental contributions to the theory of computers and artificial intelligence and his pivotal importance as a wartime codebreaker, as well as telling his fascinating and tragic personal story.

Lean, Tom. Electronic Dreams. London: Bloomsbury Sigma, A fascinating and very readable history of the PC, told from a British perspective, and with an emphasis on British computer developers such as Sinclair, Acorn, and the BBC. Levy, Steven. Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution. New York: Penguin, The stories of creative computer pioneers such as Steve Wozniak.

The Internet: A Historical Encyclopedia. A definitive three-volume history of the Internet, including a chronology, a book of biographies, and a look at the key issues challenging the Internet's development. Ask your library to order it if you can't find it.

Riordan, Michael and Lillian Hoddeson. New York: W. Encyclopedia of Computers and Computer History. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, A definitive two-volume history. Swade, Doron. New York: Viking, How Babbage tried to build the first mechanical computer. For younger readers Gifford, Clive. The Science of Computers. London: Hachette, A solid, basic, page introduction for ages 8— Oxlade, Chris.

The History of Computers. London: Raintree, This book covers roughly the same sequence of events as my article, but in simplified, page form for ages 8— Communication and Computers. New York: Facts on File, Therefore, most practical programs are written in more abstract high-level programming languages that are able to express the needs of the programmer more conveniently and thereby help reduce programmer error.

High level languages are usually "compiled" into machine language or sometimes into assembly language and then into machine language using another computer program called a compiler. It is therefore often possible to use different compilers to translate the same high level language program into the machine language of many different types of computer.

This is part of the means by which software like video games may be made available for different computer architectures such as personal computers and various video game consoles. Program design of small programs is relatively simple and involves the analysis of the problem, collection of inputs, using the programming constructs within languages, devising or using established procedures and algorithms, providing data for output devices and solutions to the problem as applicable.

As problems become larger and more complex, features such as subprograms, modules, formal documentation, and new paradigms such as object-oriented programming are encountered. Large programs involving thousands of line of code and more require formal software methodologies. The task of developing large software systems presents a significant intellectual challenge.

Producing software with an acceptably high reliability within a predictable schedule and budget has historically been difficult; the academic and professional discipline of software engineering concentrates specifically on this challenge. Errors in computer programs are called " bugs ". They may be benign and not affect the usefulness of the program, or have only subtle effects.

But in some cases, they may cause the program or the entire system to " hang ", becoming unresponsive to input such as mouse clicks or keystrokes, to completely fail, or to crash. Otherwise benign bugs may sometimes be harnessed for malicious intent by an unscrupulous user writing an exploit , code designed to take advantage of a bug and disrupt a computer's proper execution.

Bugs are usually not the fault of the computer. Since computers merely execute the instructions they are given, bugs are nearly always the result of programmer error or an oversight made in the program's design. Computers have been used to coordinate information between multiple locations since the s.

The U. In time, the network spread beyond academic and military institutions and became known as the Internet. The emergence of networking involved a redefinition of the nature and boundaries of the computer. Computer operating systems and applications were modified to include the ability to define and access the resources of other computers on the network, such as peripheral devices, stored information, and the like, as extensions of the resources of an individual computer.

Initially these facilities were available primarily to people working in high-tech environments, but in the s the spread of applications like e-mail and the World Wide Web , combined with the development of cheap, fast networking technologies like Ethernet and ADSL saw computer networking become almost ubiquitous.

In fact, the number of computers that are networked is growing phenomenally. A very large proportion of personal computers regularly connect to the Internet to communicate and receive information. A computer does not need to be electronic , nor even have a processor , nor RAM , nor even a hard disk. While popular usage of the word "computer" is synonymous with a personal electronic computer, the modern [81] definition of a computer is literally: " A device that computes , especially a programmable [usually] electronic machine that performs high-speed mathematical or logical operations or that assembles, stores, correlates, or otherwise processes information.

There is active research to make computers out of many promising new types of technology, such as optical computers , DNA computers , neural computers , and quantum computers. Most computers are universal, and are able to calculate any computable function , and are limited only by their memory capacity and operating speed.

However different designs of computers can give very different performance for particular problems; for example quantum computers can potentially break some modern encryption algorithms by quantum factoring very quickly. There are many types of computer architectures :. Of all these abstract machines , a quantum computer holds the most promise for revolutionizing computing.

The ability to store and execute lists of instructions called programs makes computers extremely versatile, distinguishing them from calculators. The Church—Turing thesis is a mathematical statement of this versatility: any computer with a minimum capability being Turing-complete is, in principle, capable of performing the same tasks that any other computer can perform.

Therefore, any type of computer netbook , supercomputer , cellular automaton , etc. A computer will solve problems in exactly the way it is programmed to, without regard to efficiency, alternative solutions, possible shortcuts, or possible errors in the code.

Computer programs that learn and adapt are part of the emerging field of artificial intelligence and machine learning. Artificial intelligence based products generally fall into two major categories: rule based systems and pattern recognition systems. Rule based systems attempt to represent the rules used by human experts and tend to be expensive to develop.

Pattern based systems use data about a problem to generate conclusions. Examples of pattern based systems include voice recognition, font recognition, translation and the emerging field of on-line marketing. As the use of computers has spread throughout society, there are an increasing number of careers involving computers.

The need for computers to work well together and to be able to exchange information has spawned the need for many standards organizations, clubs and societies of both a formal and informal nature. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Automatic general-purpose device for performing arithmetic or logical operations. For other uses, see Computer disambiguation.

Main article: History of computing hardware. Main article: Analog computer. It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article titled Digital computer. Discuss May Main articles: Computer hardware , Personal computer hardware , Central processing unit , and Microprocessor. Play media. Main articles: CPU design and Control unit.

Main article: Arithmetic logic unit. Main article: Computer data storage. Main article: Computer multitasking. Main article: Multiprocessing. Main article: Computer software. Main articles: Computer program and Computer programming. Main article: Programming language. Main article: Low-level programming language.

Main article: High-level programming language. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. July Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Software bug.

Main articles: Computer networking and Internet. Main article: Human computer. See also: Harvard Computers. Glossary of computers Computability theory Computer insecurity Computer security Glossary of computer hardware terms History of computer science List of computer term etymologies List of fictional computers List of pioneers in computer science Pulse computation TOP list of most powerful computers Unconventional computing.

Oxford English Dictionary 2 ed. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 10 April Online Etymology Dictionary. The containers thus served as something of a bill of lading or an accounts book. In order to avoid breaking open the containers, first, clay impressions of the tokens were placed on the outside of the containers, for the count; the shapes of the impressions were abstracted into stylized marks; finally, the abstract marks were systematically used as numerals; these numerals were finally formalized as numbers.

Eventually Schmandt-Besserat estimates it took years Archived 30 January at the Wayback Machine the marks on the outside of the containers were all that were needed to convey the count, and the clay containers evolved into clay tablets with marks for the count. Retrieved 1 July Wiet, V. Elisseeff, P. Wolff, J. Naudu Bibcode : Natur. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society.

IEEE Micro. Turk J Elec Engin. Charles Babbage, Father of the Computer. Crowell-Collier Press. Online stuff. Science Museum. Retrieved 1 August New Scientist. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The Life and Work of Konrad Zuse. EPE Online. Archived from the original on 1 June Retrieved 17 June The New York Times. Der Computer. Mein Lebenswerk in German 3rd ed.

Berlin: Springer-Verlag. The Story of IT: Zuse". Archived from the original on 18 September Retrieved 1 June The First Electronic Computer. BBC News. Retrieved 14 October The National Museum of Computing. Archived from the original on 18 April Retrieved 7 January Sperry Rand.

Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society. British Computer Society. Retrieved 10 January Introduction to Transistor Circuits. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd. Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 26 June All of the architectures listed in this table, except for Alpha, existed in bit forms before their bit incarnations were introduced.

Although the control unit is solely responsible for instruction interpretation in most modern computers, this is not always the case. Some computers have instructions that are partially interpreted by the control unit with further interpretation performed by another device.

For example, EDVAC , one of the earliest stored-program computers, used a central control unit that only interpreted four instructions. All of the arithmetic-related instructions were passed on to its arithmetic unit and further decoded there. Eck A K Peters, Ltd. Handbook of Parallel Computing and Statistics. CRC Press.

Introduction to the Basic Computer. Porat Introduction to Microcomputers and the Microprocessors. Davis Noise Reduction in Speech Applications. These so-called computer clusters can often provide supercomputer performance at a much lower cost than customized designs.

While custom architectures are still used for most of the most powerful supercomputers, there has been a proliferation of cluster computers in recent years. However, this method was usually used only as part of the booting process. Most modern computers boot entirely automatically by reading a boot program from some non-volatile memory.

An x compatible microprocessor like the AMD Athlon 64 is able to run most of the same programs that an Intel Core 2 microprocessor can, as well as programs designed for earlier microprocessors like the Intel Pentiums and Intel This contrasts with very early commercial computers, which were often one-of-a-kind and totally incompatible with other computers.

Interpreted languages are translated into machine code on the fly, while running, by another program called an interpreter. Computer hardware may fail or may itself have a fundamental problem that produces unexpected results in certain situations.

For instance, the Pentium FDIV bug caused some Intel microprocessors in the early s to produce inaccurate results for certain floating point division operations. This was caused by a flaw in the microprocessor design and resulted in a partial recall of the affected devices. Retrieved 17 February Hughes Systems, Experts, and Computers.

MIT Press. Internet Society. Bibcode : cs Retrieved 20 September Retrieved 29 January Dumas Evans, Claire L. Fuegi, J. American Mathematical Society. Retrieved 5 April Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Digital Equipment Corporation Verma, G.

Swade, Doron D. February Scientific American. Bibcode : SciAm. Archived from the original on 20 February Retrieved 27 November Lavington, Simon A History of Manchester Computers 2 ed. Swindon: The British Computer Society. Light, Jennifer S. Technology and Culture. Stokes, Jon San Francisco: No Starch Press. Zuse, Konrad The Computer — My life.

Berlin: Pringler-Verlag. Felt, Dorr E. Mechanical arithmetic, or The history of the counting machine. Chicago: Washington Institute. Ifrah, Georges Berkeley, Edmund Giant Brains, or Machines That Think. Cohen, Bernard Howard Aiken, Portrait of a computer pioneer. Physics Today. Bibcode : PhT Paris: Robert Laffont.

Couffignal, Louis Paris: Gauthier-Villars. Essinger, James Jacquard's Web, How a hand loom led to the birth of the information age. Hyman, Anthony Charles Babbage: Pioneer of the Computer. Princeton University Press. Bowden, B. Faster than thought. New York, Toronto, London: Pitman publishing corporation. Moseley, Maboth Irascible Genius, Charles Babbage, inventor.

London: Hutchinson. Collier, Bruce The little engine that could've: The calculating machines of Charles Babbage. Garland Publishing Inc. Randell, Brian Archived from the original PDF on 21 September Retrieved 29 October Smith, Erika E. Basic computer components. Digital electronics.

Digital signal Boolean algebra Logic synthesis Logic in computer science Computer architecture Digital signal Digital signal processing Circuit minimization Switching circuit theory. Logic synthesis Place and route Placement Routing Register-transfer level Hardware description language High-level synthesis Formal equivalence checking Synchronous logic Asynchronous logic Finite-state machine Hierarchical state machine.

Computer hardware Hardware acceleration Digital audio radio Digital photography Digital telephone Digital video cinema television Electronic literature. Metastability Runt pulse. Analog electronics Digital electronics Electronic instrumentation Electronics engineering Microelectronics Optoelectronics Power electronics Printed electronics Semiconductor Schematic capture Thermal management.

Atomtronics Bioelectronics Failure modes of electronics Flexible electronics Low-power electronics Molecular electronics Nanoelectronics Organic electronics Photonics Piezotronics Quantum electronics Spintronics. Categories : Computers Consumer electronics s fads and trends s fads and trends. Namespaces Article Talk.

Views Read View source View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikiquote. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Computers and computing devices from different eras. Pascal's calculator , Arithmometer , Difference engine , Quevedo's analytical machines. Programmable devices. Desktop Computer. Programma , HP Intel , Intel Mouse , keyboard , joystick , image scanner , webcam , graphics tablet , microphone.

Monitor , printer , loudspeaker. Floppy disk drive, hard disk drive , optical disc drive, teleprinter. Long range computer networking. Unix and BSD. List of Linux distributions , Comparison of Linux distributions. Macintosh operating systems. Embedded and real-time.

List of embedded operating systems. C standard library , Standard Template Library. Graphical user interface WIMP. Text-based user interface. Command-line interface , Text user interface. Application Software. Browser , Email client , Web server , Mail transfer agent , Instant messaging. Computer-aided design , Computer-aided manufacturing , Plant management, Robotic manufacturing, Supply chain management.

Raster graphics editor , Vector graphics editor , 3D modeler , Animation editor , 3D computer graphics , Video editing , Image processing. Digital audio editor , Audio playback , Mixing , Audio synthesis , Computer music. Compiler , Assembler , Interpreter , Debugger , Text editor , Integrated development environment , Software performance analysis , Revision control , Software configuration management.

Edutainment , Educational game , Serious game , Flight simulator. Timeline of programming languages , List of programming languages by category , Generational list of programming languages , List of programming languages , Non-English-based programming languages. Commonly used assembly languages. Commonly used high-level programming languages.

Commonly used scripting languages.


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healthy snack daythe nutrients you need to stay healthy and feel energized. Snacks can keep your blood glucose. (sugar) levels stable throughout the day if you find your energy. Nutritionist and NYT Best Selling Author talks about the importance of eating healthy snacks to keep your energy going throughout the day.

Carrot sticks are a diet staple for good reason. When your salty-crunchy cravings hit, reach for two calorie bags of air-popped popcorn. Choosing baked, not fried, chips and fresh salsa make this healthy snack a better choice than greasy potato chips with dip.

Ten baked tortilla chips have about calories, while a half-cup of salsa contains about A word to the wise: Store-bought salsa can be high in sodium, so read food labels carefully. Although calories will vary with the weight of the pita, half an average whole-wheat pita has 85 calories, and a quarter-cup serving of hummus has 93 calories. Together, the two make a filling snack.

This nutritious duo is the perfect on-the-go snack. A stick of low-fat string cheese is between 60 and 80 calories, and a medium apple is about calories. Toss a mid-morning bagel in favor of this slimmed-down treat. Half an English muffin has 64 calories, and a two-tablespoon serving of cream cheese has 99 calories — you can also trim some of the fat and calories by using a whipped variety.

Unsalted almonds, cashews, and pistachios are all protein- and fiber-rich snacks full of healthy monounsatured fats. However, because nuts are high in calories, the key is to watch portion sizes. Almonds have calories per quarter-cup serving, cashews have calories, and pistachios have Ski and Snowboard Association, recommends this simple, on-the-go treat — though it's important to watch out for added sugar in store-bought protein bars.

When your sweet tooth strikes, turn to a half-cup of low- or nonfat frozen yogurt. Most varieties have less than calories per serving. For added nutrients, she recommends topping plain frozen yogurt with chunks of fresh fruit. There are many flavors of sherbet , and most clock in at about calories for a half-cup. Sorbet also comes in a variety of options, and its range is about 80 to calories.

Two eggs might seem small, but the combined 12 grams of protein in just calories will keep you full and satisfied. Plus, few nutrition powerhouses are simpler to make ahead of time and eat on-the-go than hard-boiled eggs. Eating Well; iStock. Roll a one-ounce slice of turkey and a one-ounce slice of cheese together to get a nutritious snack that has just calories, depending on the type of cheese used.

Whether you're making these pretzel bites as an after-school snack or party appetizer , they're the perfect amount of savory and spicy. Instead of chowing down on sugary cookies , try making these bars made from molasses, dried cherries, and candied ginger.

Get the recipe for Cherry-Ginger Hermit Bars. For a sweet boost to your afternoon yogurt, just add jam. Mix 1 Tbsp jam with 1 container nonfat plain Greek yogurt for a filling snack that's packed with protein. A healthy alternative to popsicles, these fruit kebabs feature pieces of frozen mango and pineapple.

For extra sweetness, add a drizzle of white chocolate on top. Get the recipe for Frozen Tropical Fruit Kebabs. With 0 mg cholesterol , this snack is a heart-healthy take on traditional hard-boiled egg recipe. Cut 2 hard-boiled eggs in half and discard the yolks. Sprinkle a pinch of Asian 5-spice seasoning and sea salt on 1 cup steamed edamame for this tasty snack.

Slice 1 banana and spread 1 Tsp natural peanut butter on each side. Sandwich together, wrap in plastic wrap, and freeze for 4 hours. These are sure to satisfy sugar cravings after dinner. Cut 1 medium eggplant into 3-in. Transfer to nonstick foil-lined baking sheets and bake until golden brown and tender, about 20 minutes. For a delicious low-calorie snack, spread 1 Tbsp reduced-fat cream cheese on each of 4 celery stalks.

Add raisins for some sweetness. These protein-packed savory treats will fuel you through busy days , and taste great for a mid-morning or afternoon snack. Get the recipe Cheddar Zucchini Muffins. Get the recipe for Hummus Crackers. Sprinkle 2 Tsp ground cinnamon on 4 cups of air-popped popcorn for a low-calorie sweet treat.

Who says you can't have pumpkin outside of fall? Remove the seed and enjoy with a spoon. Type keyword s to search. Today's Top Stories. The Best Beach Reads. Erika Lapresto. Snack Mix. Chocolate Covered Clementines. Spiced Plum and Quinoa Muffins.

Brandon Bales. Eggplant Parm Chips. Peanut Butter Protein Balls. Keto Peanut Butter Cookies. Fauxtato Chips. Sweet 'N Salty Chocolate Bark. Roasted Broccoli—Artichoke Dip. Peanut Butter and Jelly Muffins. Mike Garten. Peach Melba Ice Pops.

You'd never guess that these fruity peach ice pops are only 65 calories per serving. Snacks in jars are just more fun. This light egg recipe has an impressive 19 g protein, too. Con Poulos. Green Olive, Walnut, and Pomegranate Dip. Cherry-Ginger Hermit Bars. Annabelle Breakey Getty Images. Jam Yogurt.


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windows 10 frissГ­tГ©sek keresГ©se

Я попросил тебя кое-что сделать, и ты сказала, что сделаешь. А потом нарушила слово. Так ты хочешь выйти. Давай.


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whats in a watermelonIn other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikibooks Wikiquote. Retrieved 10 August

Фредди-или-Фрэнки с криком побежал домой. Вероника Грогэн училась в четвертом классе Церковной школы на Нейболт-стрит. Руководили школой люди, которых мать Бена называла святошами. Девочку похоронили в ее десятый день рождения. После этой трагедии как-то вечером Арлен Хэнском позвала сына в гостиную и села рядом с ним на диване.


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mulberry official saleDesigner labels. The range includes male and female fashions, leather accessories, and footwear.

Самыми активными рассказчиками этих историй, как выяснил он, были мужчины, которых не затащили бы в Сокол и на аркане, из страха, что у них руки отсохнут или что-то другое. И однако именно они знали самые пикантные подробности. Согласно этим историям, ты мог зайти в бар в любой вечер и увидеть, как мужчины, тесно прижавшись друг к другу, танцуют, вместе гоняя шкурку прямо на танцплощадке; как мужчины целуются взасос у стойки бара; как мужчины отсасывают друг другу в туалетах.

А еще была комната, куда ты шел, если хотел провести какое-то время на Башне силы: там восседал здоровяк в нацистской униформе, со смазанной вазелином рукой, который с радостью ублажал всех, кто этого. На самом деле ничего такого не было и в помине.


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childrens games online freePlay cool kid's games at Boomerang TV. We have great online games featuring the Looney Tunes, Tom and Jerry, the Flintstones and more. All free to play. Find here a wide range of great memory games for kids with their favourite characters, cartoon heroes, animals and more Online and Free games, so come.

Help her strike the right chords that will win over audiences all around the world! Things work a little differently at this boutique. Some of the clothes are easy to find but others are hidden in gift boxes. Join Eliza while she searches for them, and some cool outfits, in this game for girls. Help Snail Bob have a very merry Christmas by keeping him alive in this puzzle-ridden winter wonderland.

Is your love meant to be? Are your friends destined to wind up together? Discover the answer with the love tester in this romantic game. This amazing spinning game is based on the real life Fidget Spinner gadget. Beat your own high score by spinning faster and faster! Warm your spinning fingers as you will need to spin to win! Far off in this fantastic world of fantasy, there lives a majestic unicorn within a misty forest, and with him is a princess who tends to his care.

With your help, you add in color to this fairyland and make this picture last forever. The little green monster Om Nom is back and hungrier than ever! Team up with the Professor, a mad but not bad! Sery has a date with a handsome hunk tonight. Help her find some adorable outfits and cool accessories in all of these gift boxes. The brave bird and his friend return in this exciting io game.

Compete against other players across the planet while you try to help your bird avoid crashing into the pipes. How long can you keep him from hitting anything? This mom and her daughter love modern styles and cool clothing. Can you help them choose some fashionable outfits before they enjoy an afternoon of shopping in this game for girls?

Which one will nab the top prize? That all depends on you! Help them design their outfits before they take a stroll down the catwalk. All Dress up. All Cooking. All Decoration. All Skill. All Simulation. You can play this online spinner game with many types of different colored Fidget Spinners, just like the one you are holding in your hand right now.

You can also modify your spinner and add some cool features before you give it a few spins. Try to earn a high score in this crazy-addictive fidget spinner game! Spin the toy as many times as you can, earn coins and buy upgrades! How many times can you make it go around and around in this silly action game? Can you create some slime that looks super gross and super cool too?

Papa's Sushiria! Team up with him while he steals jewels, nabs rare dolls, and makes off with other priceless items from some of the most highly-secured buildings in Moscow. Bob will need your help while he avoids surveillance cameras, high-tech alarms, and a few of the toughest security guards on the planet. Preparing a turkey is hard work! Can you help this guy make his first Thanksgiving dinner in this funny simulation game?

These colorful balls are about to cause tons of problems as they slowly descend down the screen. Take control of the cannon and destroy them! Can you wipe them all out in this unique match 3 puzzle game? Freddy the robot and his fellow freaky creations are on the loose again! Snail Bob's back—and it's grandpa's birthday party or bust!

The good news: you just got a job at the circus. How long will you survive in this crazy online game? This enchanted kingdom is full of candy and this adorable monster is determined to eat all of it! Can you help him stuff his tummy with tons of sugary sweets in this online puzzle game? Help Snail Bob have a very merry Christmas by keeping him alive in this puzzle-ridden winter wonderland.

Wheely and his girlfriend are having a picnic in the park but some alien automobiles need help! Their spaceship has broken down. Can you help them repair it in this adorable adventure game? The little green monster Om Nom is back and hungrier than ever! Team up with the Professor, a mad but not bad! Join the battle in the Fighting Arena with Sir Scarow at your service.

A quest for the riches for the survival of the fittest soul will have you fight against creatures of old. Or you could be taken to the training room to improve your strength by hitting the apples thrown at you. Create your own gladiator style look and get ready to cross swords with a stinging mosquito or even a blind mole.

Explore the world of mandala in this unique and spiritual coloring game. Fill in the designs with vibrant reds, yellows, greens and other colors. Can you escape from the bedroom by solving each one of the puzzles in this online game? Your favorite cartoon car is back; yep Wheely has returned and is ready to start with you a new challenging and fun adventure!

Puzzle your way through these automobile adventures to win the heart of the lady car of your dreams! Help him bust into some secret labs and other heavily secured buildings in this mobile game. Combine the numbers to add up to the right number as quickly as you can. Choose your favorite country and then 3 toons in this totally awesome cartoon sports game, Toon Cup !


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android watch youtubeWatch movies and TV shows purchased on YouTube by casting them to Android TV by using the Cast btn on your phone, tablet, or computer. For more. Tired of YouTube channels that you're not interested in or that are irrelevant? How To Block Youtube Channels Pause Watch History.

Change video quality In the video player, tap More. Tap Settings. Select video quality. Enable captions Not all videos may have closed captioning available. In the video player, tap More. Tap CC. Check out more caption options.

Zoom On devices with aspect ratios greater than , you can zoom in to videos to make the video expand to the full screen. Go to the video you'd like to zoom. With two fingers, pinch out on the video screen. Fast forward or rewind Double-tap the left side of the video-screen to rewind. Double-tap the right side of the screen to fast-forward.

Watch videos while browsing The minimize feature lets you browse suggestions, playlists, and more without pausing or stopping a video. Maximize the player: Swipe upwards on the minimized video to maximize it again. All data collected in the survey is anonymous. Hard Fork!

Hard Fork? Hard Fork. Android Apps YouTube. Treat yourself Sit back and let the hottest tech news come to you by the magic of electronic mail. Who are you?


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arcade on lineThis arcade game was created for those who never forgot their childhood dreams . And so, you are now looking through the periscope of a submarine and the. And as a bonus: You can play all of these retro games online for free Atari's first product in —a simple table tennis arcade video game.

Насчет этой комнаты у них существовала договоренность, такая нерушимая, что они редко упоминали о. Точно так же, как не говорили о том, что у них есть носы и они носят обручальные кольца. Когда-нибудь эту комнату они передадут Энди или Дженни.

Но где ребенок.


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android app statesFramework. Why is the build() method on State, not StatefulWidget? Flutter is optimized for 2D mobile apps that want to run on both Android and iOS. Apps that . Android: How to detect when App goes background/foreground There will be at least one Activity in the started state when the app is in the.

We offer educational resources on weapons, guns, firearm and CCW, instructor training, as well as gun shooting range map, CCW reciprocity map and gun laws. Our Android app even provides instant notifications on CCW permit recognition as you cross state borders! The app also provides you access to the Concealed Carry Magazine — current and past articles full of valuable gun education, stories and articles, as well as honest CCW product reviews and comparisons.

All Rights Reserved. Reproduction without permission prohibited. Reviews Review Policy. App Improvements and Enhancements. View details. Flag as inappropriate. Visit website. See more. Multiple APK support. Adding wearable features to notifications. Creating wearable apps.

Creating custom UIs. Sending and syncing data. Creating data providers. Creating watch faces. Android TV. Building TV Apps. Building TV playback apps. Helping users find content on TV. Recommending TV content. Building TV channels. Android for Cars. Android Things. Developer kits. Advanced setup. Build apps. Create a Things app. Communicate with wireless devices. Configure devices. Interact with peripherals.

Build user-space drivers. Manage devices. Create a build. Push an update. Chrome OS devices. Core topics. Interact with other apps. Handling app links. App shortcuts. App widgets. Architecture Components. Data Binding Library. Paging Library. How-To Guides. Advanced Concepts. Threading in WorkManager. Intents and intent filters. User interface. Improving layout performance.

Custom view components. Look and feel. Add the app bar. Control the system UI visibility. Supporting swipe-to-refresh. Pop-up messages overview. Adding search functionality. Creating backward-compatible UIs. Media app architecture. Building an audio app. Building a video app. Routing between devices. Background tasks. Sending operations to multiple threads.

Manage device awake state. Save data in a local database. Sharing simple data. Sharing files. Sharing files with NFC. Printing files. Content providers. Autofill framework. Contacts provider. Data backup. Back up key-value pairs. Remember and authenticate users.

User location. Using touch gestures. Handling keyboard input. Supporting game controllers. Input method editors. Performing network operations. Transmit network data using Volley. Perform network operations using Cronet. Transferring data without draining the battery. Reduce network battery drain. Transfer data using Sync Adapters.


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